In the first quadrant operation power can be flow from source to load and hence, current and voltage in the first quadrant are assumed to be positive. Circuit diagram of hbridge mosfet chopper a four quadrant chopper with mosfet switches. Matlab simulation on speed control of four quadrant dc. The different quadrant operations drive the motor with.
In case four quadrant operation forward motoring, forward braking, reverse motoring and reverse braking of the dc drive, a bridge rectifier of consisting of 12 scrs with a three phase incoming supply is used. In this work we used a four quadrant chopper to control dc motor as shown in figure 3. The fourquadrant chopper dc drive dc7 block represents a fourquadrant, dcsupplied, chopper or dcdc pwm converter drive for dc motors. Four quadrant operation of motor drive forward motoring. A lowcost fourquadrant chopperfed embedded dc drive. The load current can be determined using the relevant equations. For a specific case of an electrical drive with a dc motor the application requires to. A pwm controlled four quadrant chopper is used to feed the dc motor. During each quadrant operation, scrs are triggered at a phase angle in order to provide required dc voltage to the motor.
Separately excited dc motor speed control using four. The early dc driven ev prototypes as depicted in table 1 employed separately excited dc. Chopper based speed control of dc motor using atmega16. Four quadrant bidirectional dc drive system based on pwm technique using sg3524 for chopper dc dc converter d. Type b chopper or second quadrant chopper chopper second quadrant. This work is a compilation study of four quadrant dc drive implemented using dc dc voltage. Four quadrant choppers are applied in drives in which regenerative breaking of dc motors is desired, for example, transportation systems with frequent stops. Pdf matlab simulation on speed control of four quadrant. The speed control loop outputs the reference armature current of. Pdf matlab simulation on speed control of four quadrant dc. Separately excited dc motor speed control using four quadrant.
Chopper control of separately excited dc motor the chopper converts the fixed dc voltage to variable dc voltage. Introduction in future, the electric motor propulsion system. Two quadrant chopper drive two quadrant dc motor drives duration. A four quadrant or multiple quadrant operation is required in industrial as well as commercial applications. The variable dc voltage is controlled by varying the on and offtimes of a converter.
It offers greater efficiency, faster response, lower maintenance, smaller size and smooth control. A high performance motor drive system must have good dynamic speed command tracking and load regulating response. A tacho generator is used to sense the speed of the motor. Based on the number of quadrant a chopper can operate, the chopper circuits can be classified as.
In this article, the four quadrant chopper class e chopper controlled by a fuzzy controller suitable for embedded system implementation is presented. You will understand the block diagram and the mode of operation of such a drive as well as its main advantages and drawbacks. The variable voltage to the armature of a dc motor for speed control can be obtained from a dc chopper which is a single stage dc to dc conversion device. Four quadrant dc motor drive international conference on innovative and advanced technologies in engineering march2018 48 page figure 1. Widely used in trolley cars, battery operated vehicles, traction motor control, control of large. Matlab closed loop control of chopper fed dc motor rkarthikkumar academy. This paper proposes a way to govern the rate and route control of a dc motor with the help of a 4 quadrant dc dc chopper.
Design and implementation of four quadrant dc drive using. Four quadrant operation of dc motor four quadrant operation of any drives or dc motor means that the machine operates in four quadrants. Matlab simulation on speed control of four quadrant dc drive. Duty cycle and machine speed for efficient drive performance. In this paper present four quadrant speed control model is designed by using chopper to control the speed of dc motor. Motor speed is considered positive when rotating in the forward direction. The speed below the base speed can be controlled by armature voltage control method. Four quadrant chopper drive use for speed control of dc motor sagar s. A chopper is a static device which is used to obtain a variable dc voltage from a constant dc voltage source. On this channel you can get education and knowledge for general issues and topics.
A dc drive system is formed using four quadrant chopper as converter which uses igbt as its switching device. A pwm controlled fourquadrant chopper is used to feed the dc motor. This quadrant corresponds to braking in the reverse motoring mode. One quadrant, two quadrant, and four quadrant dc motor drives. Four quadrant chopper, igbt, dc motor, pwm, voltage regulator. Four quadrant chopper circuit the switches in the four quadrant chopper can be switched in two different modes. Operation of four quadrant chopper is shown in figure1. Four quadrant operation of bldc motor drive youtube. An addition of filtering reactive components to dc choppers results in pwm dc dc converters. Design and implementation of pid controller for a two. Four quadrant operation means the drive can operate the motor in four different modes by changing the. Implementation of series motor four quadrant dc chopper for.
Jun 08, 2019 chopper can increase or decrease the dc voltage level at its opposite side. Keywords dc drive, ev and hev, series motor, four quadrant chopper i. This paper is the part four 4 of the total 8 papers of the series motor four quadrants dc chopper that describes the generator mode operation of a four quadrant drive dc chopper that is applicable for ev traction. As their operation is unidirectional, they are called one quadrant drive systems. The speed control loop outputs the reference armature current of the machine. Based on the number of quadrant a chopper can operate, the chopper circuits can be classified as follows. Matlab closed loop control of chopper fed dc motor. Class e chopper schematic and quadrants of operation. Chopper fed dc drives separately excited dcm current. Loni, india accepted 14 april 2016, available online 15 april 2016, vol. Separately excited dc motor is formulated as a transfer for use in matlab.
Essentially, a chopper is an electronic switch that is used to interrupt one signal under the control of another. Self tuning fuzzy logic controlling chopper operation of four. Keywordsdc drive, ev and hev, series motor, four quadrant chopper i. Implement fourquadrant chopper dc drive simulink mathworks. This drive features closedloop speed control with four quadrant operation. Pdf series motor four quadrants drive dc chopper for low. The single quadrant drive may turn out to be two quadrants for example if a fan is decelerated faster than mechanical losses could naturally achieve. So, chopper serves the same purpose in dc circuit transfers in case of ac circuit. The proposed drive system will consist of a power electronic circuit and its associated control logic, powered by an onboard 48v battery pack. Self tuning fuzzy logic controlling chopper operation of.
This paper proposes a method to control the speed and direction control of a dc motor by using a four quadrant dc dc chopper. In type b or second quadrant chopper the load must always contain a dc source e. Four quadrant operations of dc motor electronics hub. Choppers circuits an overview sciencedirect topics. Schematic of an inverter using a vibrator as a chopper. Four quadrant chopper drivesfour quadrant dc chopper drives.
In antiparallel with each single quadrant chopper is connected a diode. Essentially, a chopper is an electronic switch that is used to interrupt one signal under the control of another 2. Some of these applications include electric traction systems, cranes and lifts, cable laying winders, and engine test loading systems. The instantaneous value of the converter output voltage is noted with vo and that. Jan 16, 2017 two quadrant chopper drivetwo quadrant dc motor drives duration. The variation of time ratio at constant chopper frequency provides a variable voltage. The simulation works for ev have covered wide area of research 610. The dc choppers with inductive outputs serve as inputs to currentdriven inverters. When the chopper is on, v 0 is zero but the load voltage e drives the current through the inductor l and the chopper, l stores the energy during the time t on of the chopper. A four quadrant adjustable speed drive for series wound dc motors a dissertation submitted by. Types of chopper circuits type a, type b, type c, type d.
These applications require both driving and braking, i. The variable dc voltage is controlled by varying the on. In electronics, a chopper circuit is used to refer to numerous types of electronic switching devices and circuits used in power control and signal applications. Waveforms corresponding to the output voltage vo and the output current io of the fullbridge chopper are identical to those for halfbridge four quadrants chopper shown in the lab no. For drives which operate only in one direction, forward speed will be their normal speed. An electric motor is the part of electric drive, its energy transmitting. Dec 17, 2015 a four quadrant or multiple quadrant operation is required in industrial as well as commercial applications.
A motor operates in two modes motoring and braking. The four quadrant chopper dc drive dc7 block represents a four quadrant, dc supplied, chopper or dc dc pwm converter drive for dc motors. It is also possible that a chopper operates in all the quadrants, which are known as 4 quadrant chopper. This singleended, groundedload, dc chopper w ill be extensively analysed. Part 3 examines the operation of a standard dc drive system with speed and current control.
The appropriate mode of operation will guarantee optimum consumption of the battery power, thus provide longer distance traversed. Pdf design and implementation of four quadrant dc drive. Four quadrant chopper chopper is used for conversion of fixed dc into variable dc. A motor drive capable of operating in both directions of rotation and of producing both motoring and regeneration is called. For consideration of four quadrant operation of motor drive, it is useful to establish suitable conventions about the signs of torque and speed. Dc motors are used extensively in adjustable speed drives and position control applications. Pdf dynamics of a four quadrant chopper controlled d. Fourquadrant chopper and asynchronous control strategy the fourquadrant chopper used for drive the d.
Nevertheless, the conventional dc drive in both its 1 quadrant and 4 quadrant variants will continue to play an important role, for technical and physical reasons alike, when dynamic drives with a constant load torque and stringent requirements for overload withstand. An 8051 based microcontroller with an inbuilt pulse width modulation pwm unit is used to generate the pwm waveform required to switch the dc to dc converter. Some choppers operate in two quadrant also which are known as two quadrant chopper. Fourquadrant bidirectional dc drive system based on pwm. It is a single quadrant chopper whose operation is restricted in first quadrant of v o i o plane. Dec 22, 2018 four quadrant operation of motor drive. Each mosfet has a freewheeling diode across it and a snubber circuit to limit the rate of rise of the voltage, the dc. Dc drive, electric vehicle, hybrid electric vehicle, series motor, four quadrant dc chopper. This drive features closedloop speed control with two quadrant operation. The matlab simulation is used to compare the performance of chopper circuit. The voltage variation at the load terminals can be obtained by using either current limit control or time ratio control.
Four quadrant chopper drive use for speed control of dc motor. Compressor, pump and fan type load requires operation in the i quadrant only. Implementation of series motor four quadrant dc chopper. Dc motor drives are used drastically in adjustable pace drives and function manage programs. Introduction using electric vehicle ev might well be one of the solutions to reduce environmental pollution and global warming. The two quadrant chopper dc drive dc6 block represents a two quadrant, dc supplied, chopper or dc dc pwm converter drive for dc motors. The speed under the base velocity may be controlled by way of armature voltage manage technique. A new four quadrants drive chopper for separately excited.
This paper is the part four 4 of the total 8 papers of the series motor four quadrants dc chopper that describes the generator mode operation of a four quadrant drive dc chopper that is. They are forward braking, forward motoring, reverse motoring and reverse braking. A four quadrant adjustable speed drive for series wound dc motors. A chopper is a device that converts fixed dc input to a variable dc output voltage directly. Fourquadrant fullbridge choppers pwm controlled with. With the use of four quadrant chopper fed dc motor. Closed loop control of four quadrant chopper duration. The control subsystem includes the outer speedcontrol loop, the inner currentcontrol loop, and the pwm generation. This project encompasses the design, construction and testing of a four quadrant dc adjustable speed drive for an electric vehicle ev with a serieswound traction motor. Series motor four quadrants drive dc chopper springerlink. Four quadrant chopper drivesfour quadrant dc chopper. The fourquadrant chopper dc drive dc7 block represents a four quadrant, dc supplied, chopper or dc dc pwm converter drive for dc motors. Four quadrant operation of chopper fed separately excited dc.
However, detail information on the design and method of operation for the systems were rarely addressed in the research literature. References a s awad, e a mohamed, m m eiegm, and a i said 1997, speed control of dc motor drives based on efficient utilization. Part 1 begins with an overview of the operation of thyristorfed dc motor drives. Four quadrant operation of chopper fed separately excited. The designed model provide four quadrant speed control of dc motor in both direction, ie.
In many industries also the requirement for emergency stopping of machinery may require two quadrant operation although the process itself is single quadrant type. Pdf in this paper present four quadrant speed control model is designed by using chopper to. Novel proposed chopper simulation model of four quadrants drive dc chopper fqdc simulation is the safest and economical as first step taken when analysing a new system. Four quadrants dc chopper systems are widely used in dc drive traction for electric vehicles. The proposed control technique may be used for the speed control of solar power fed dc motor drives which can be used in rural small scale industry application. The operation of the four quadrant chopper is illustrated in the next section. Selfcommutated devices directly on or off devices via gate like mosfet, igbt, power transistors, gto and igct are used for making choppers because they can be commutated by low power control signal and do not need commutation circuit. In the iv fourth quadrant, the torque is positive, and the speed is negative. May 08, 2015 free power how to convert an old washing machine into a water powered generator duration. Part 2 continues with a look at converter output impedance, four quadrant operation, single and doubleconverter reversing drives and power factor and supply effects. A new four quadrants drive chopper for separately excited dc.
A lowcost fourquadrant chopperfed embedded dc drive using. Accordingly, this study aimed to contribute on a new topology of a four quadrants drive dc chopper for separately excited dc motor. In antiparallel with each singlequadrant chopper is connected a diode. A four quadrant adjustable speed drive for series wound dc.
Classe chopper operation operation of a four quadrant chopper class e, is illustrated with a dc motor as load as shown in fig. Quadrants of operation of a dc motor dc motor drives can be categorized according to the way they manage the energy generated during braking of the dc. Chopper control of separately excited dc motor circuit globe. Using the block from the library, with internal parameter ra0. Aug 12, 2017 5 however, by using appropriate arrangement of semiconductor devices and passive components, a chopper can operate in any of the four quadrants. The chopper is designed to operate in five operation modes. Based on this observation, in what follows it will be analyzed the one and two quadrant choppers with an active load of rle type dc motor.1075 914 1229 249 1420 1394 29 1172 320 1219 673 1473 511 1355 1300 1217 1503 663 970 808 299 1082 1479 1420 157 1325 1354 335 232 28 435 660 363 435 724