Protected by the vertebral column, the sc is the means by which nerve impulses are transmitted between the body and brain. Despite the advent of novel medical therapies for the treatment of these injuries, many patients with spinal cord injury remain severely incapacitated and dependent on their families andor specialized nursing care. Given the significance of the sc, injuries to it can result in lifechanging consequences and disability that not only affect the patient, but also. In the lancet neurology, the global burden of diseases, injuries, and risk factors gbd 2016 tbi and sci collaborators provide a rigorous and comprehensive analysis of the global, regional, and. Epidemiology of sci acute traumatic sci occurs worldwide with an estimated annual incidence of 1540 cases per million146 and current status of acute spinal cord injury pathophysiology and emerging therapies. Traumatic spinal cord injury sci is a drama in two acts. A clinical practice guideline for the management of acute. Prevalence the national sci database is a prospective longitudinal multicenter study that currently captures data from an estimated 6% of new sci cases in the u. Additional cns insult may result from concomitant head or spinal cord injury.
Spinal cord compression history and exam bmj best practice. Epidemiology, demographics, and pathophysiology of acute. Spinal cord injury can result in altered visceral sensation thus making the diagnosis of an acute abdomen challenging, even in the face of perforation. Traumatic spinal cord injury sci is a life changing neurological condition with substantial socioeconomic implications for patients and their caregivers. Onestage posterior decompressionstabilization and transsacral interbody fusion after partial reduction for severe l5s1 spondylolisthesis. This study aims to describe the demographics and the injury characteristics for both traumatic and nontraumatic spinal cord injuries and to explore the risk factors for. Towards a living data repository spinal cord 2014 52 97109 doi. Aspiration of as little as mlkg of fluid leads to significantly impaired gas exchange. Epidemiology and contemporary risk profile of traumatic spinal cord. An acute traumatic lesion of the neural elements in the spinal canal, resulting in temporary or permanent sensory deficit, motor deficit, or bowelbladder dysfunction. Spinal cord injuries tend to affect more men than women, and the majority of people who sustain a spinal cord injury are between the ages of 16 and 30 because of increased likelihood of risky behaviors. Spinal cord compression scc is a devastating condition affecting people across all age groups worldwide. This article outlines the initial management of acute traumatic spinal cord injuries in adults. Traumatic spinal cord injury sci can produce a sudden and devastating impact on quality of life due to severe motor, sensory, and autonomic dysfunction, including bowel, bladder, and sexual impairment.
Injury to other systems is largely secondary to hypoxia and ischemic acidosis. Spinal cord injury 1990 case definition recommend on facebook tweet share compartir note. Data on demographics, incidence or prevalence of sci if reported. To analyse the epidemiological and demographic characteristics of persons with traumatic spinal cord injury tsci in norway. A silent acute abdomen in a patient with spinal cord injury. Pdf epidemiology and pathophysiology of neurogenic. The initial mechanical forces delivered to the spinal cord at the time of injury is known as primary injury where displaced bone fragments, disc materials, andor ligaments bruise or tear into the spinal cord tissue 79. Despite this, little international data exist regarding incidence and prevalence. Update on the pathophysiology and pathology of acute spinal cord injury. The adverse consequences of traumatic sci result from a welldescribed pathological process involving primary and secondary mechanisms. Not all spinal cord injuries sci are caused by trauma, such as car and sporting accidents. A clinical perspective and definition of spinal cord injury. Articles with at least one abstract in english or portuguese were searched.
In high cord injuries, symptoms of shoulder tip pain and signs of autonomic dysreflexia should not be ignored. An understanding of the issues related to chronic spinal cord injury should commence from an appreciation of the events that caused the primary injury. Falls are the leading cause of spinal cord injuries for people ages 65 years or older. Epidemiology epidemiology injuries to the spinal cord have been classified as either traumatic in cause e. A teenager diving into a shallow lake, a young mother in a car accident on her way to work, a collapse of a workmans scaffolding, an elderly woman falling down a flight of stairsspinal cord injuries can happen to anyone at any time. Trauma to cervical segments is associated with the most destructive consequences such as quadriplegia, loss of respiratory, autonomic system function etc. While not nearly as common, nontraumatic injury to the spinal cord is a possibility from causes such as tumors, blood loss, or a stenosis.
Demographic profile of traumatic spinal cord injuries. To identify the demographic profile of persons with traumatic spinal cord injury tsci admitted at the center. Nov 01, 2018 spinal cord injury sci is an insult to the spinal cord resulting in a change, either temporary or permanent, in its normal motor, sensory, or autonomic function. From bedside to community epidemiology epidemiology injuries to the spinal cord have been classified as either traumatic in cause e. In 1987, the council of state and territorial epidemiologists cste recommended designating traumatic spinal cord injuries scis as the first injury condition reportable to state health agencies and to cdc. Model spinal cord injury systems mscis program have collected valuable. Sci commonly results from a sudden, traumatic impact on the spine that fractures or dislocates vertebrae. Spinal cord injury occurs through various countries throughout the world with an annual incidence of 15 to 40 cases per million, with the causes of these injuries ranging from motor vehicle accidents and community violence to recreational activities.
To describe the epidemiology of spinal cord injury sci. Cervical spinal cord injury is a serious clinical condition characterized by damage to segments c1 to c7 of the spinal cord. Epidemiology of spinal cord injuries and risk factors for. Mar 19, 2008 acute spinal cord injury is a devastating disease with enormous repercussions, not only for the victims and their families but for society as a whole. Patients with spinal cord injury usually have permanent and often devastating neurologic deficits and disability. Epidemiology, demographics, and pathophysiology of acute spinal. The clinical presentation correlates to the level and completeness of cord injury.
To describe the epidemiology of spinal cord injury sci in. A spinal cord injury sci is defined as damage to the spinal cord caused by an insult resulting in the transient or permanent loss of usual spinal motor, sensory, and autonomic function. Nov 25, 2008 epidemiology of sci acute traumatic sci occurs worldwide with an estimated annual incidence of 1540 cases per million146 and current status of acute spinal cord injury pathophysiology and emerging therapies. Published retrospective studies and case series have suggested that over 70% of the. Background spinal cord injuries are highly disabling and deadly injuries. May 15, 2012 to identify the demographic profile of persons with traumatic spinal cord injury tsci admitted at the center. Read more about symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, complications, causes and prognosis. Primary injury results from acute mechanical trauma, compression by a spaceoccupying lesion, or a vascular insult. Spinal cord injury sci occurs in various countries throughout the world with an annual incidence of 15 to 40 cases per million, with the causes of these injuries ranging from motor vehicle accidents and community violence to recreational. We also attempted to summarize the worldwide demographics and preventative strategies for sci in varying economic and climatic environments and to evaluate how cultural and economic differences affect the etiology of sci. Demographics of acute admissions to a national spinal.
The relationship of traumatic spinal cord injury sci and the geriatric population is not emphasized in current literature. Despite the advent of novel medical therapies for the treatment of these injuries, many patients with spinal cord injury remain severely incapacitated and dependent on their families and or specialized nursing care. New clinicalpathological classification of intraspinal. Epidemiology, spinal cord injury, incidence, chronic, injury. The changing demographics of traumatic spinal cord injury. Preclinical evidence has suggested that persistent compression of the spinal cord after the primary injury represents a reversible form of secondary injury, which, if ameliorated in an expeditious fashion, may lead to reduced neural tissue injury and improved outcomes.
Unstable or sharp bony fragments pushing on the cord, or pressure from bone fragments or swelling that interrupts the blood supply to the cord causing ischemia. Current status of acute spinal cord injury pathophysiology. Currently, few studies focus on nontraumatic spinal cord injuries, and there is little information regarding the risk factors for complete injuries. Spinal cord injury sci is a traumatic event that impacts a patients. Injury can occur at any level of the spinal cord and can be complete injury, with a total loss of sensation and muscle. Chronic spinal cord injury epidemiology bmj best practice. Global estimates of the annual incidence of sci range from 15 to 40 cases per million. Traumatic spinal cord injuries tsci are relatively rare but second only to traumatic brain injury for burden of injury and years lived with disability. Initial management of acute spinal cord injury bja. The national spinal cord injury statistical center nscisc has been collecting epidemiologic data on spinal cord injury sci for nearly 40 years and has been able to provide the public and medical community with information on the evolution of sci, including demographics, injury patterns, longterm prognosis, and socioeconomic impacts. Dec 15, 2001 epidemiology, demographics, and pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury sci is associated with significant disability that has broad implications both for the patient and for society.
Recent advances in medical management of sci has significantly improved diagnosis, stabilization, survival rate and wellbeing of sci patients. Our objective was to evaluate mechanisms of injury, outcomes, and complications of geriatric patients with traumatic sci. Epidemiology of spinal cord injuries and their outcomes. Materials and methods the national spinal injuries unit is the tertiary referral centre for major spinal injury management in ireland serving a population of 4. Patients with traumatic spinal cord injuries admitted to the inpatient rehabilitation unit of a level i trauma center from 2003. Traumatic spinal cord injuries in geriatric population. The term spinal cord injury refers to damage to the spinal cord resulting from trauma e. Epidemiology, demographics, and pathophysiology of acute spinal cord injury. Symptoms may include loss of muscle function, sensation, or autonomic function in the parts of the body served by the spinal cord below the level of the injury. The annual incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury sci varies throughout the world, but in all countries, many patients with acute sci present for surgery shortly after their injury whether to stabilize or decompress the spinal cord, or to manage concurrent nonspinal traumatic injuries.
Going from daily routine to a lifechanging spinal cord injury can put independent living in jeopardy and totally reconfigure the realities of daily life. Global prevalence and incidence of traumatic spinal cord injury ncbi. Initial management of acute spinal cord injury continuing. Pdf epidemiology, demographics, and pathophysiology of. Non trauma spinal cord injury is the name given to a range of conditions which cause similar levels of impairment to that of a traumatic incident. The first part represents the trauma itself, causing the destruction of neural tissue, i. An understanding of the pathophysiology, treatment options, and potential risks in this patient group is essential to ensure. With a greater understanding of both primary and secondary mechanisms of injury, the roles of calcium, free radicals, sodium, excitatory amino acids, vascular mediators, and apoptosis have been elucidated. However, there has been small progress on treatment options for improving the neurological. Experimental and clinical studies of the pathophysiology and management of acute spinal cord injury. Analyses of etiology of injury by demographic and neuro logic factors were. The study was conducted at the national spinal injuries unit, mater miscericordiae university hospital, dublin, ireland. Spinal cord injury sci is an insult to the spinal cord resulting in a change, either temporary or permanent, in its normal motor, sensory, or autonomic function. Tsci leads to decreased quality of life, social participation, and productivity as well as significant financial burden.
The impact of acute management on the occurrence of medical complications during the specialized spinal cord injury acute hospitalization following motorcomplete cervical spinal cord injury 19 july 2017 the journal of spinal cord medicine, vol. Acute spinal cord injury is a devastating disease with enormous repercussions, not only for the victims and their families but for society as a whole. With respect to the etiology of sci, studies used different definitions of. Pathophysiology the initial primary trauma causes mechanical injury to the spinal cord, a combination of compression, laceration, distraction or. A surveillance case definition is a set of uniform criteria used to define a disease for public health surveillance. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury surveillance united states, 1987. Continued investigation of the pathophysiology of primary and secondary neuronal injury following acute spinal cord injury sci has led to positive results in two medical treatment protocols. Jun 19, 2019 the target organ of submersion injury is the lung. The aim of this study was to examine the epidemiology and demographics of acute admissions to the national spinal injuries unit in ireland from the 5 years to 2003. A demographic profile of new traumatic spinal cord injuries. The spinal cord sc is part of the central nervous system that connects the brain to the rest of the body. Global burden of traumatic brain and spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injurysecondary injury pathophysiologic mechanisms spinal cord injury sci may be defined as an injury resulting from an insult inflicted on the spinal cord that compromises, either completely or incompletely, its major functions motor, sensory, autonomic, and reflex.
International perspectives on spinal cord injury edited by jerome. This debilitating condition not only creates enormous physical and emotional cost to individuals but also is a significant financial burden to society at large. Pathophysiology of traumatic spinal cord injury springerlink. A spinal cord injury sci is damage to the spinal cord that causes temporary or permanent changes in its function. Global maps of nontraumatic spinal cord injury epidemiology. Spinal cord injury is associated with lower rates of school enrollment and economic participation, and it carries substantial individual and societal costs. Full text epidemiology of worldwide spinal cord injury. Spinal cord injury sci facts and figures at a glance. A global perspective on spinal cord injury epidemiology. Common causes of spinal cord injury what causes spine injuries. Acute traumatic spinal cord injury surveillance united. Traumatic brain injury tbi and spinal cord injury sci are devastating conditions with farreaching physical, emotional, and economic consequences for patients, families, and society at large.704 1272 998 400 810 1383 303 540 292 1010 1393 485 1048 803 1272 1009 1156 448 635 1443 1403 702 75 319 1176 291 537 1229 1316 1417 219